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July 1st - History On The Way To Today at

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On The Way To Today...   July 1st

1097 - The Crusaders defeated the Turks at Dorylaeum in the First Crusade.

1535 - English writer and statesman, Sir Thomas More, was tried and convicted under charges of treason. He was executed five days later. As chancellor of England, he was accused of treason for refusing to accept King Henry VIII as head of the Church of England. More is famous for his book "Utopia."

1543 - England and Scotland signed the Peace of Greenwich, providing for the marriage of Prince Edward Tudor and Mary, Queen of Scots.

1569 - The Union of Lublin merged Poland and Lithuania.

1810 - Louis, king of Holland, abdicated after pressure from Napoleon.

1845 - Philosopher and poet Henry David Thoreau took up residence at Walden Pond in Massachusetts.

1847 - The very first adhesive postage stamp went on sale. Ben Franklin appeared on the nickel stamp, while George Washington was on the ten cent stamp. It cost five cents to mail a one-ounce letter.

1859 - In Pittsfield, Massachusetts, the first intercollegiate baseball game was played. Amherst defeated Williams College 73-32.

1862 - The United States Congress established the Bureau of Internal Revenue. President Abraham Lincoln signed the bill into law, making it possible for the feds to collect a three percent income tax on profits ranging from $600 to $10,000, and 5% on incomes reaching over $10,000. Several laws like this were never officially enacted or enforced and this law was just temporary. In 1913, the Bureau became the Internal Revenue Service. It was then the 16th amendment was added to the United States Constitution allowingthe Federal Government to once again collect an income tax. Lucky us.

1863 - The Battle of Gettysburg (Pennsylvania), one of the Civil War's most crucial combats, began. In the battle Confederate troops led by Gen. Robert E. Lee fought against Union troops led by Gen. George Meade. The battle ended three days later when Confederate troops were forced to retreat back to Virginia.

1867 - The Confederation of Upper and Lower Canada and the Maritime Provinces became the Dominion of Canada. A Canadian national holiday, Canada Day was formerly called Dominion Day.

1874 - The first zoo chartered in the United States opened in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Over 3,000 visitors paid 25 cents (adults) or 10 cents (children) to see the 1,000 animals housed in the Philadelphia Zoological Society zoo. (Chicago's Lincoln Park Zoo, opened to the public in 1868)

1893 - The first American bicycle race track to be constructed out of wood opened in San Francisco, California.

1897 - Three years after its first publication, "Billboard Advertising," was renamed, "The Billboard." The monthly magazine would, in later years, become a weekly.

1903 - The world's premier cycling event, the Tour de France, was held for the first time. The winner of the first tour was the French cyclist Maurice Garin. The tour is staged throughout France (sometimes passing through neighboring countries) over a period of several weeks.

1907 - The world's first air force was established with the formation of the Aeronautical Division of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer of the U.S. Army.

1916 - A week into the first battle of the Somme, British forces launched a massive infantry attack during which they lost 20,000 men -- the heaviest one-day loss in British warfare.

1916 - On the day he was promoted to first lieutenant in the United States Army, Dwight D. Eisenhower married Mamie Geneva Doud.

1932 - At the 45th Wimbledon Women's Tennis competition, Helen Moody beat Helen Jacobs.

1934 - As proclaimed in the "Communications Act of 1934," The Federal Communications Commission replaced the Federal Radio Commission as regulator of broadcasting in the United States.

1935 - "King Porter Stop," was recorded by Benny Goodman and his band for Victor Records. Many considered this classic the beginning of the swing era.

1937 - The world's first telephone emergency service came into operation in Britain.

1940 - German troops landed on the Channel Island of Jersey.

1941 - On station WBNT in New York, the giant industry of television advertising was born, when Bulova sponsored the first television commercial. A camera focused on one of their wristwatches with the announcer reading the time. The commercial cost 9 dollars.

1942 - Sevastopol in Crimea fell to German forces after an eight-month siege.

1944 - The Bretton Woods Conference began under the auspices of the U.N. to formulate post-war international monetary policy.

1946 - The U.S. tested an atomic bomb over the Bikini Atoll in the Pacific.

1948 - The 5-cent cost to ride a New York City subway doubled to a dime.

1951 - After pitching his third no-hitter for the Cleveland Indians, Bob Feller set a baseball record.

1956 - Elvis Presley was invited bySteve Allen to appear on "The Tonight Show".

1960 - Ghana became a republic, with Kwame Nkrumah as its first president.

1960 - British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland were united to form the Somali Democratic Republic.

1961 - In Boise, Idaho, the first ever community air-raid shelter was built. The shelter could up to 1,000 people and for $100 a family could buy a membership.

1962 - The Kingdom of Burundi and the republic of Rwanda both became independent.

1963 - The United States Postal Service introduced Mr. Zip. The character seen on mailbox sides and posters. Mr. Zip was introduced to help inform the public about using the 5-digit ZIP (Zone Instant Post) code.

1967 - Scott McKenzie earned his first hit song with the single, "San Francisco (Be Sure to Wear Flowers in Your Hair)." The song would become an anthem for the "Love Generation." In 1988, McKenzie co-wrote a hit for the Beach Boys, called "Kokomo." Born, Philip Blondheim, in Jacksonville, Florida, Philip thought the name Scott McKenzie sounded better for a career in music. His songs "San Francisco" and "Like an Old Time Movie," were both written and produced by The Mamas and The Papas member John Phillips.

1969 - In Scotland, John Lennon, Yoko Ono, and their children Julian and Kyoko (from their previous marriages) were in a car crash. John, who was driving, received 20 stitches in his chin and Yoko was treated for a concussion and a fractured back. The children's injuries were minor.

1969 - The investiture of the Prince of Wales was held at Caernarvon Castle.

1973 - In the Western Open golf tournament, Bruce Crampton tied for fourth place, bringing his career earnings to a total of over a million dollars. Crampton was the first, non-American, golfer to reach that mark and became the fifth golfer to have career earnings over a million dollars. The only others to complete such a feat were Arnie Palmer, Billy Casper, Jack Nicklaus and Lee Trevino.

1973 - After 720 Broadway performances,"Jesus Christ Superstar" closed in New York City. The cast album became a million copy seller.

1974 - In West Germany, Walther Scheel succeeded Gustav Heinemann as president.

1977 - In Argentina, Maria Estela (Isabel) Peron, widow of the late president Juan Peron, was charged with a $ 1 million charity fraud.

1979 - Susan B. Anthony, an activist for women’s suffrage, was commemorated on a United States coin with the Susan B. Anthony dollar. The coin was about the size of a quarter, and was often mistaken for a quarter, so the United States Treasury Department eventually stopped producing it.

1980 - "O Canada" was proclaimed Canada's national anthem.

1981 - The United States Supreme Court ruled that federal office candidates had an "affirmative right" to appear on national television. The ruling limited the television network’s right to decide when political campaigns could begin and who could buy time.

1981 - Juice Newton's single, "Angel Of the Morning," went gold on this date.

1985 - Milwaukee Brewer Robin Yount got hit number 1,800 of his career, leading the Brewers to beat the Boston Red Sox 5-1.

1987 - When 11-year old John Kevin Hill landed at Washington D.C.'s National Airport he became the youngest aviator to fly across the United States.

1991 - Court television was born as a cable television network which broadcasts entire trials, whether about the rich or the poor.

1991 - Popular television actor and director Michael Landon died of pancreatic and liver cancer at the age of 54. His untimely death stunned the nation. Landon would be best remembered for his television roles as Little Joe Cartwright on the long-running Bonanza series and Charles Ingalls on the much-acclaimed Little House on the Prairie.

1991 - East European leaders met in Prague and announced the end of the Warsaw Pact.

1992 - The fledgling FOX network added Wednesday night television programming on this date.

1993 - New limits on political asylum rights came into effect in Germany, a move aimed at stemming the flow of hundreds of thousands of refugees into the country.

1994 - After 33 years, Yasir Arafat of being regarded by Israelis as a terrorist and a sworn enemy of the State of Israel, who was never permitted on Israeli soil, he leader of the Palestinian Liberation Organization visited the Gaza Strip as a result of a signed agreement between Israel and the PLO. The treaty gave the PLO ruling power of both the territory and the city of Jericho.

1995 - The blockbuster stage hit, "Kiss of the Spider Woman", closed at the Broadhurst in New York City after 906 performances.

1996 - Beautiful actress-model Margaux Hemingway was found dead in her home in Santa Monica, California. Authorities did not know the cause of death, but initially ruled out foul play or suicide. Hemingway, sister of actress Mariel and granddaughter of writer Ernest, was 41 and had a history of epilepsy. She also had a history of drug abuse, alcoholism, and bulimia, but had reportedly overcome them. Family members and friends reported that they had not seen her for three days. It was later determined that Hemingway did commit suicide, taking an overdose of barbituates.

1997 - Hong Kong reverted to Chinese rule after 156 years as a British colony.

1998 - More than a year after announcing their engagement, diva Barbra Streisand and TV star James Brolin were married in a private ceremony at her home. It was her second marriage, his third.

1999 - In Kingston, Jamaica, Dennis Brown, a former child star who became known as the "Crown Prince of Reggae," died at age 42. Initial reports suggested Brown died of complications caused by respiratory problems, but his cause of death had not been confirmed. Brown rose to prominence during a 1970s wave of reggae singers that included Bob Marley, who introduced the music to listeners worldwide. Brown released a string of hit songs beginning with "No Man is an Island," which he recorded in 1969 at the age of 12. Other hits included "Westbound Train," "How Could I Leave," and "Ghetto Girl." He earned a Grammy nomination in 1995 for his album "Light My Fire".

1999 - Film director Edward Dmytryk, a member of the Hollywood Ten who served prison time during the Red Scare-era witch hunts of the 1940s, and was blacklisted until he named names of his communist comrades, died at 90 in Encino, California. He had been ill for a year and succumbed to heart and kidney failure. Films Dmytryk directed included "The Caine Mutiny," "Raintree Country," "The Young Lions," and "The Carpetbaggers".

1999 - Sylvia Sidney, the waiflike star of the 1930s who got an Oscar nomination in 1973 for a comeback role in "Summer Wishes, Winter Dreams," died at age 88. Sidney made her professional theater debut at 16 and was still acting 70 years later, with a brief appearance in the 1988 hit "Beetlejuice" and a small role in "Mars Attacks" in 1996. Among the directors she worked with were Josef von Sternberg in "An American Tragedy," (1931); Alfred Hitchcock in "Sabotage" (1936); William Wyler, in "Dead End" (1937); and Fritz Lang in "Fury" (1936), "You Only Live Once" (1937), and "You and Me" (1938).

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