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September 1st - History On The Way To Today at UselessKnowledge.com

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On The Way To Today...   September 1st

891 - Arnulf defeated the Vikings from Scandinavia at the battle of Louvain in Belgium.

1159 - Pope Adrian IV died. He was originally Nicholas Breakspear and was the only Englishman to be Pope. He was elected Pope in 1154.

1494 - Charles VIII of France invaded Italy in an attempt to claim the throne of Naples.

1810 - John J. Wood patented the first plow with interchangeable parts.

1830 - Sarah J. Hale published her nursery rhyme, 'Mary had a little lamb'.

1858 - The East India Company's government of India ended with the British crown taking over its territories and duties.

1859 - The Pullman sleeping car, built by George Pullman's company with help from Ben Field, was put into service.

1864 - The Charlottetown Conference began on Prince Edward Island, representing the first steps toward Canadian confederation.

1864 - In the American Civil War, the Confederates under Gen. John Hood abandoned the city of Atlanta. It was occupied by Gen. Sherman the next day and soon set ablaze.

1864 - The Charlottetown Conference began on Prince Edward Island, representing the first steps toward Canadian confederation.

1870 - In the Franco-Prussian War, the French under Napoleon III were heavily defeated by the Prussians under Moltke at the battle of Sedan. This defeat opened the path to Paris.

1878 - Emma Nutt became the first woman telephone operator when she went to work for Edwin Holmes and his Telephone Dispatch Company in Boston, Massachusetts.

1887 - A patent was file for by Emile Berliner for his invention, the lateral-cut, flat-disk gramophone; better known as the record player. Emile got the patent, but the glory went to Thomas Edison for making his American inventiont work.

1900 - Transvaal Republic was annexed by Britain and a proclamation was issued by Lord Roberts.

1906 - The Philadelphia Athletics, of the American League, saw pitcher Jack Coombs go 24 innings. The Atheletics would defeat the Boston Red Sox.

1916 - Bulgaria declared war on Romania in World War I.

1922 - Radio's first daily news program was "The Radio Digest" on WBAY radio. George F. Thompson, the programís editor, was also the host.

1923 - A magnitude-7.9 earthquake struck Japan and completely destroyed Yokahama and nearly destroyed Tokyo. At least 142,000 people were killed and 2.5 million made homeless.

1928 - Albania was declared a kingdom, with Zog I as ruler.

1939 - Germany invaded Poland with 1.8 million troops, beginning World War II. The invasion took place one week after the governments of Germany and the Soviet Union signed a secret pact of non-aggression. Two days after the invasion, England and France declared war on Germany.

1942 - A federal judge in Sacramento, California, upheld the wartime detention of Japanese-Americans as well as Japanese nationals.

1944 - The movie Arsenic and Old Lace, starring Cary Grant, opened in New York.

1945 - The United States received official word of Japan's formal surrender that ended World War II. In Japan, it was actually September 2nd.

1946 - Greeks voted to recall King George II to the throne. He had been living in exile in England.

1948 - For the Love of Mary, a musical-comedy starring Deanna Durbin and Edmond O'Brien, opened in U.S. theaters. Uncomfortable with the fame that came from her popular films, this was Durbin's last film. Durbin, known as "Winnipeg's Sweetheart", her first screen kiss made international headlines. Wanting to "live a normal life," Durbin secluded herself in France. For over 35 years she has resisted every approach from film companies. Her husband, a film director, told journalists, "The late Mario Lanza pleaded with her for years to make a film with him. But she will never go back to that life." Durbin has not granted an interviewed since 1949.

1949 - On NBC-TV "Martin Kane, Private Eye" debuted. Airing on Thursday nights, the show starred William Gargan. "Martin Kane" was a cool, wisecracking mover and shaker who worked closely with the police. He was headquartered at Happy McMannís tobacco shop.

1951 - Britain's first supermarket opened in Earl's Court, London.

1953 - Jacques Thibaud, French violinist, died in an air crash. Famed for his technique, he was a member of the famous trio with Alfred Cortot and Pablo Casals.

1954 - Viewers in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, saw the first prizefight to originate from a telvision studio. At the last minute, the television studio substituted this fight when the scheduled 15-round welterweight fight that was supposed to be televised from Connie Mack Stadium in Philly was postponed.

1955 - Herman Wouk's novel, Marjorie Morningstar, was published in New York by Doubleday.

1960 - Julius Nyerere became Tanganyika's prime minister.

1962 - An earthquake struck northwestern Iran, killing 12,000 people and destroying more than 300 villages.

1967 - An Arab summit lifted the oil embargo on Western states imposed during the Six-Day war.

1969 - Military officers overthrew the Libyan government, and Col. Moammar Gadhafi came to power.

1971 - It was a Major League Baseball first when Pittsburgh Pirates manager, Danny Murtaugh, gave his lineup card to the umpire containing the names of nine black baseball players.

1972 - For "Back Stabbers," the OíJays earned a gold record. The song was the group from Canton, Ohio first hit. The OíJays would have nine more hits on the pop and R&B charts over the years, five of which earned gold records: "Love Train", "I Love Music", "Use ta Be My Girl", "For the Love of Money" and "Put Your Hands Together".

1972 - Robert "Bobby" Fischer, United States chess player, defeated Soviet player Boris Spassky in Reykjavik, Iceland, becoming the United States' first player to officially win the World Chess Championship. Fisher's strange demands during tournaments, off-the-wall antics, and unexplained forfeiture of his world title brought him an uncharacteristic notoriety than most chess champions.

1973 - Braulio Baeza, horse-racing jockey, won two races at New York's Belmont Park. Baeza then got on a plane and flew to Liberty Bell race track in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania where he rode Determined King to a win in the Kindergarten Stakes.

1974 - Anastasio Somoza was elected president of Nicaragua.

1975 - It was the final broadcast of "Monday Night Baseball" on NBC-TV when Montrealís Expos beat the Philadelphia Phillies 6-5. In 1976, ABC-TV picked up the games.

1977 - Blondie singer Debbie Harry signed a recording deal with Chrysalis Records who bought the groupís private stock label for $500,000. Blondie is often not thought of as a band, but rather just Debbie Harry, the former Playboy Bunny.

1979 - The United States unmanned spacecraft Pioneer II, launched in 1973, transmitted data to earth after coming within 12,560 miles of Saturn's clouds.

1981 - A bloodless coup ousted President David Dacko of the Central African Republic.

1982 - After a two-year absence, following a nearly fatal stroke in June, 1980, the major leagues welcomed back pitcher J.R. Richard when the Houston Astros called him back.

1983 - Korean Air Lines (KAL) Flight 007, in route to Seoul, Korea, from New York City, was shot down by a Soviet plane, killing all 269 people on board. The KAL flight reportedly strayed more than 100 miles off course, flying over secret Soviet military bases. Debate continues today as to why the airliner was so far off course. Tae Kwon Do Master Hyong Ung Hong was one of the people who died in the air disaster.

1985 - A joint United States-French expedition located the wreck of the Titanic roughly 560 miles off the coast of Newfoundland. The "unsinkable" ocean-liner sunk in 1912 after hitting an iceberg. Twelve years after the wreck's location, the movie Titanic went on to break box office records.

1986 - At his annual telethon on Labor Day weekend, Jerry Lewis raised a record $34 million for Muscular Dystrophy.

1986 - The Soviet Union announced the accident involving the Admiral Nakhimov the night before. 448 people died in the ship collision.

1990 - Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union signed the first agreement between Comecon countries to conduct their trade in convertible currencies and use world prices.

1995 - Chief warlord Charles Taylor and other key militia leaders were installed in a new ruling council in Liberia.

1997 - In France, the prosecutor's office said the driver of the car in which Princess Diana was killed, was over the legal alcohol limit.

1998 - Vietnam released 5,000 prisoners, including political dissidents, on National Day.

1998 - The film Titanic was released on video, amidst much media attention. Millions of tapes were distributed, and many stores across the nation were opened at midnight for the anticipated crowds wanting to purchase the tape.

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