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1340 - In the Spanish-Muslim Wars, an army under Alfonso IV of Portugal heavily defeated the Moors under Abu Hamed at the battle of Salado.
1817 - The independent government of Venezuela was established by Simon Bolivar.
1864 - The Peace of Vienna, under which Denmark ceded Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg to Prussia, was signed.
1894 - Daniel M. Cooper of Rochester, New York patented the time clock into which timecards were inserted. The time clock would stamp the time on the card to record the time an employee started and ended work.
1905 - Czar Nicholas II issued the "October Manifesto," offering extended suffrage, an elected parliament (Duma) with legislative powers and guaranteeing civil liberties.
1918 - The Slovaks agreed to a union with the Czechs under the name of Czechoslovakia.
1918 - Turkey signed an armistice which ended its participation in World War I.
1922 - Italy's King Victor Emmanuel summoned Benito Mussolini from Milan and asked him to form a Fascist government.
1925 - It was an eclectic set of parts that formed the television transmitter that beamed televsion to London for the first time. John Baird built the transmitter using a tea chest, a biscuit box, darning needles, piano wire, motorcycle lamp lenses, old electric motors, cardboard scanning discs and glue, string and sealing wax.
1929 - John D. Rockefeller announced he was buying sound, common stocks to help stem the massive sell-off at the New York Stock Exchange, but it did no good. Over 10.7 million shares were dumped the day before and the market was in a free fall. The Great Depression was beginning and even a Rockefeller could not stop it.
1930 - A treaty of friendship between Turkey and Greece was signed at Ankara.
1938 - The radio drama, War of the Worlds, produced by Orson Welles over the Columbia Broadcasting System, was broadcast for the first time. The realism of the radio drama was unprecented, as it duplicated a newscast with startling precision. The broadcast panicked thousands of people who thought that Martians were actually landing in New Jersey.
1941 - "Blossoms," the eventual theme song of bandleader Tony Pastor was recorded on the Bluebird label. Pastor also recorded: "Dance with a Dolly (With a Hole in Her Stocking)".
1958 - Quiz show, "Concentration", was part of daytime television's lineup from August 1958 to March 1973, but this night it appeared on television at 8:30 p.m. "Concentration" was a temporary replacement for "Twenty-One", after its sudden cancellation dut to the quiz show scandals of the time. Jack Barry, host of "Twenty-One", was transfered to host "Concentration" for its four-week nighttime run.
1961 - The Soviet Party Congress approved an order to remove Joseph Stalin's body from Lenin's tomb.
1964 - Roy Orbison's single recording, Oh, Pretty Woman, became a gold record on this date, and ultimately stayed on the pop charts for 15 weeks.
1965 - I Hear A Symphony, recorded by The Supremes, debuted on Billboard's Top 40 charts, and became the Motown female group's sixth Number 1 hit.
1972 - Elton John gave a command performance for the Queen of England.
1972 - In Illinois, 45 people were killed when two trains collided in Chicago.
1972 - Pierre Trudeau and his Liberal Party narrowly won Canada's general election.
1974 - Muhammad Ali knocked out George Foreman in Kinshaha, Zaire, and regained the world heavyweight boxing title.
1975 - Prince Juan Carlos assumed the role of Spain's acting head of state after General Francisco Franco fell ill.
1976 - It was the start of Chicago's second, and final week at number one on the pop singles charts with, "If You Leave Me Now". It was replaced by Stevie Wonder’s "Songs in the Key of Life" which was number one for a total of 14 weeks.
1984 - When Barry Manilow opened at Radio City Music Hall, New York, his show sold out for $1.9 million, beating by $100,000 Diana Ross's record.
1984 - Dan Ackroyd and John Belushi, The Blues Brothers (Jake and Elwood), saw their LP "Briefcase Full of Blues" hit the two-million-dollar sales mark.
1986 - It was reported by "Discover" that each year nearly 43 million tons of dust settle on the United States.
1988 - Over 6,500 couples from the Unification Church were married in Seoul in a service conducted by the church's Korean leader, Sun Myung Moon.
1989 - Socialist Prime Minister Felipe Gonzalez clinched an absolute majority in the Spanish general election, winning 176 seats in the 350-seat parliament.
1990 - China announced the results of a nationwide census which showed its population totalled 1.13 billion people.
1990 - Workmen digging from opposite sides of the English Channel connected their tunnels, during construction of rail link between England and France.
1995 - Federalists beat separatists in a referendum on secession in Quebec, Canada.
1996 - A South African judge jailed former state assassin Eugene de Kock for more than 200 years, describing him as a chilling and revolting agent for apartheid.
1997 - Belfast lawyer Mary McAleese was elected president of Ireland.